The fundus - what is it?
The fundus is the inside of the eye, which is visible with ophthalmoscopy. Any changes in the structure or appearance of this structure may indicate the development of the disease, both ophthalmic and systemic. We will find out how the fundus examination procedure goes, what it is called and what are its features.
This term applies to the retina, optic nerve cord, blood vessels, and peripherals in the interior of the eye. You will see that the fundus has a reddish hue under an ophthalmoscope-a special instrument that is used to analyze this region of the eyeball. The optic disc is pale pink in this case, it stands out against the backdrop of the overall reddish image. The main venous and retinal artery are at the very middle of the disk. They are divided into two divisions-the lower and upper divisions, after which they diverge into several small branches that spread all over the fundus. The macula, or yellow spot at the very middle of the retina .Compared with the rest of the described structures, the macula has a darker color. Any changes in colour, form, disc form, macula, retina can be a consequence of pathological process growth. A thorough analysis of the fundus will detect this at an early stage. The technique used to examine this is called ophthalmoscopy.Indications for ophthalmoscopy
This procedure is standard. It takes place both separately and during any preventive examination along with other types of research. In addition, ophthalmoscopy is prescribed if there are suspicions of various diseases.
With its help, you can identify the following ailments that affect the fundus:
- Macular degeneration - a dystrophic disease of the central region of the retina;
- Occlusion and thrombosis - circulatory disorders in the central artery and central vein, respectively;
- Retinitis - inflammation of the retina;
- Peripheral dystrophy of the retina;
- Cataract - clouding of the lens;
- Eye melanoma - a malignant neoplasm that affects the eyelid, choroid or connective membrane;
- Damage to the optic disc.
Fundus examination-the fundus is the only location in the body that can test blood vessels without harming the bone. Therefore the state of the vessels in other organs is assumed to be identical to the state of fundus vessels. All vascular disorders, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or atherosclerosis, cause changes in the eye's blood vessels. It is assumed that the condition of the body's vessels is identical to that of the fundus' vessels. On this basis, the stage of progression of the general illness dependent on eye disease can be determined. Examination of the fundus is an extensive study. This means the optometrist has to widen the eye pupil to test the blood vessels in the widest possible area. Upon the advice of other clinicians, such as diabetologists, general physicians, cardiologists, evaluation of the state of the blood vessels is performed. For Retina Ophthalmology Hospital ophthalmologists dealing with diseases of the posterior section of the eye, this is the main test prior to the scheduled retina procedures, macula optical coherence tomography, Avastin injection, or some other agent inside the eye.
Ophthalmoscopy is a method for examining the fundus (retina and its vessels, optic nerve, choroid), which is based on the reflection of light rays from the fundus. In simple terms, this is an examination of the eye from the inside.
How does ophthalmoscopy go?
The research is performed using an ophthalmoscope-a special tool. The doctor guides a ray of light (emanating directly from the device's lamp or transmitted from another source) through the patient's eye (through the pupil to the retina) and examines different parts of the fundus in other positions: the optic disks, macula, retinal vessels and peripherals. You can see the vitreous and crystalline lens clouding too. Ophthalmoscopy can be done with both a narrow pupil and a wide one (on mydriasis, after special drop instillation: mydriacyl, etc.). This method is resorted to when the peripheral parts of the retina are not visible or a detailed examination of the fundus is required.
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