Color perception, research methods and diagnosis of its disorders
The human eye distinguishes not just the object's form but also its colour. Both color vision and visual acuity are a feature of the retina's cone apparatus and related nerve centers. At a wavelength of 380 to 800 nm the human eye perceives colours. The color diversity is reduced to 7 colors of the spectrum in which, as Newton demonstrated, the sunlight transmitted through a prism decomposes into. Infrarot rays above 800 nm are not part of the spectrum that is visible to humans. In humans, rays below 380 nm are ultraviolet and do not have an optical effect. All colors are divided into achromatic (white, black and all kinds of gray) and chromatic (all colors of the spectrum, except for white, black and gray). The human eye can distinguish up to 300 shades of achromatic color and tens of thousands of chromatic colors in various combinations. Chromatic colors differ from each other in three main ways: by color tone, brightness (lightness) and saturation.
Color tone - the quality of color, which we denote by the words red, yellow, green, etc. and it is characterized by a wavelength. Achromatic colors have no color tone.
The brightness or lightness of a color is its proximity to white.
The closer the color is to white, the brighter it is.
Saturation is the density of the tone, the percentage of the fundamental tone and impurities to it. The more the main tone is in color, the richer it is.
Color impressions occur not only from a monochromatic ray of a certain wavelength but also from a mixture of rays of various wavelengths, according to the laws of optical color mixing. Every primary color refers to an additional color, which is obtained by mixing with white. Complementary-color pairs are found in the spectrum at diametrically opposite points: red and green, orange and blue, blue and yellow. The color combination in the continuum, located near each other, provides a sense of a new chromatic hue. For example, mixing red with yellow results in orange, blue with green - blue. The whole variety of sensation of colors can be obtained by mixing only three primary colors: red, green and blue. Because there are three primary colors, then in the retina there must be special elements for the perception of these colors.
Color Sense Check
Color perception is the capacity of the person to distinguish colours. Polychromatic Rabkin tables are used to classify color blindness (colour blindness) and its manifestations.
They distinguish trichromats (normal), protoanomalies (people with color perception disorders in the red spectrum) and germanomalies (people with color perception disorders in the green) according to the degree of color perception.
The order of the examination:
- The distance from the eyes to the monitor screen should be 50-70 cm;
- The subject’s monitor and eyes should be at the same level;
- During the test, it is not recommended to squint and tilt your head.
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- Mon.—Fr. 09:00—17:00
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