Diabetes Retinal Diseases

In diabetes mellitus (DM), all structures of the eye suffer to one degree or another, and the eye manifestations of diabetes are very diverse.

Very frequently, patients with diabetes are unaware of the existence of extreme eye conditions that do not present themselves with diminished vision for a long time to come. Sometimes, it is the ophthalmologist who may suggest a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in the early stages of the disease due to ocular manifestations.

Blood vessel diabetic damage occurs in the body, and is associated with a breach of all metabolism types. Harm to vessels small is called microangiopathy. It involves eye lesions, lungs, peripheral nerves and brain injuries. Harm to major blood vessels is known as macroangiopathy and is characterized by large vessel atherosclerosis (cerebral, coronary, renal and peripheral arteries).

Numerous studies have shown the association of microangiopathies with high blood sugar. The risk of developing these complications is significantly increased in the absence of proper glycemic control accompanied by a decrease in visual acuity, curvature of visible objects (metamorphopsies).

For a complete diagnosis of diabetic eye lesions, a fundus test is conducted using special diagnostic lenses with maximum dilatation of the pupil according to world standards. Additional highly informative methods for the examination of the retina, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), fluorescence angiography (FAG) and optical tomography in angiography mode (OCTA), may be carried out where appropriate.

Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy (retinal damage) is the main cause of progressive and irreversible visual decline in patients with diabetes in developed countries.

Duration of diabetes is the most important risk factor for retinopathy. The more "experience" of diabetes, the higher the likelihood of developing eye complications. If retinopathy is not detected in the early stages or not treated, it will lead to complete blindness over time.

Retinopathy is uncommon in people with type 1 diabetes, before they reach adolescence. Retinopathy also occurs infrequently in people with type 1 diabetes in the first five years of the disorder. With diabetes development the risk of developing retinal damage increases. Intense regulation of blood sugar will significantly reduce the risk of this complication.

Patients with type 2 diabetes often show initial signs of retinal changes at diagnosis. In this situation, the regulation of blood sugar, blood pressure, cholesterol and, if necessary, timely laser treatment, may play an important role in slowing the progression of retinopathy.

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